The Central Bureau of Investigation serves as a criminal investigation body in the nation, and it belongs to the Government of India and is a governmental agency. In India, CBI is an investigation police agency under the premier category.
The health of the national economy is ensured by CBI. The preservation of values held in public life is being done by CBI as it plays a major role and is also an elite force.
It is also the nodal police agency that is responsible for coordinating the investigation on behalf of Interpol Member countries.
The services of investigating officers are actually sought for all investigations that are major in the country. It operated under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, Government of India.
It is mandatory to mention one’s identity for giving information or the complaint to the Central Bureau of Investigation as it does not entertain complaints and information which are anonymous.
However, the identity to be kept as a request can always be requested. The Central Bureau of Investigation takes all the required care to not reveal the identity and to keep it a secret if the person wishes to.
It was set up as the Special Police Establishment in the year 1941. The Central Bureau of Investigation was later established or began on April 1st, 1963.
Their motto is “Industry, Impartiality, Integrity.”
Over the years, the Central Bureau of Investigation has established a reputation with resources that are adequate to deal with complicated cases, and then demands arose to take up investigation cases of crimes coming under a conventional category such as murder, terrorism, kidnapping, etc.
Joining Procedure for CBI
CBI recruits sub-inspectors via the staff selection commission and publishes their recruitment notice given in the employment news and leading daily. They also induct officers based on the ranks of the Inspector of Police and from the Union Territory Police forces as well on deputation.
All the recruitment or the induction procedure, the statement related to vacancy and all other details are mentioned on the website. Non-police officers are also taken on deputation in the Central Bureau of Investigation.
In the year 1987, two investigation divisions occurred:
- Anti-Corruption Division
- Special Crimes Division
Special Crimes Division deals with cases that come under conventional crime, besides economic offences. The Central Bureau of Investigation does not report to the individual states.
The Central Bureau of Investigation reports to the Indian government.
Difference Between Central Bureau of Investigation and Crime Investigation Department
Crime Investigation Department comes under state police. CID has limited powers. The Central Bureau of Investigation is an investigation that is at a central level. The purpose is to detect and examine crimes happening across the country.
CID was started in the year 1902. It was recommended by the Police Commission under the British government. CBI was started in the year 1941 as a Special Police Establishment.
CID is state-related only with regard to the area of operation. CBI operates all over the country as well as abroad.
The State government and the High court hand over the cases to the CID. The Central government, Supreme court, as well as the High court hands over cases to CBI.
CID deals with sensitive as well as complicated cases. CBI deals with corruption cases, special cases, and also economic and other related cases.
What the Central Bureau of Investigation is All About
Central Bureau of Investigation helps in tackling corruption suppress economic and violent crimes through diligent investigation and prosecution.
Central Bureau of Investigation helps to develop effective systems as well as procedures for victorious investigation. An environment that stimulates team-building mutual trust would create a healthy work environment.
Central Bureau of Investigation helps to develop a scientific temper, spirit of inquiry and reform.
It helps to seek excellence and professionalism in all spheres of functioning so that the organization can also rise to high levels of venture and achievement.
Structure of CBI
Heads of the Central Bureau of Investigation are:
- A director who is appointed for a term of two years.
- An IPS officer with a rank of Director General of Police or Commissioner of Police (State)
- The amended Delhi Special Police Establishment Act authorizes a committee to appoint the director of CBI.
It includes the following people:
- Prime Minister, i.e., the chairperson
- Leader of Opposition
- Chief Justice of India or a Supreme Court Judge who is recommended by the Chief Justice
Cases handled by the CBI
1. Special Crimes
It is related to the investigation of serious and organized crime under the Indian Penal Code and on the requests of the State governments, the other laws and also based on the orders of the Supreme Court and High Courts, which include cases in relation to terrorism, bomb blasts, crimes committed by the underworld or the mafia or kidnapping for ransom.
2. Economic Crimes
It is related to the investigation of scams which is financial related and is not minor but major, frauds related to economic-based which includes fake Indian currency notes, cybercrime, bank fraud, import and export violation, foreign exchange violation, antiques, large scale smuggling of narcotics, etc.
3. Anti-Corruption Crimes
It is related to the investigation of cases which is based on the Prevention of Corruption Act that is against the public officials and the employees that comes under the Central Government.
4. Suo Moto Cases
Only in the Union territories is it possible.
The Central Government can also authorize the Central Bureau of Investigation to investigate a crime only with the permission of the respective State government.
The Supreme Court and High Courts can even order the Central Bureau of Investigation to investigate crimes in any part of the country without the permission of the State.
Organization and Composition of CBI
Before 2001, the Central Bureau of Investigation had six divisions, namely:
- Investigation and Anti-Corruption Division ( Delhi Special Police Establishment)
- Technical Division
- Crime Records and Statistics Division
- Research Division
- Legal and General Division
- Administrative Division
But in July 2001, it was reconstituted, and now it is as follows:
- Anti Corruption Division
- Economic Offences Division
- Special Crimes Division
- Directorate of Prosecution
- Administration Division
- Policy and Coordination
- Central Forensic Science Laboratory
- Difference between CBI and State Police Forces
CBI is an agency related to investigations that deal with investigating cases based on criminals. The state police have to perform various tasks.
The state police have a lower level of investigations and supervision work compared to the CBI. The state police are required to tackle the general public. The CBI is not required to do these.
The State government is supposed to report to the Chief Minister of the respective State, whereas the CBI reports to the Prime Minister and is under the central government.
The tenure of the director of the CBI is fixed unless the Government of India allows or gives an order to remove them. The state government can remove the Chief of State police and has no fixed duration or tenure.
CBI and RTI
There is an exception in obtaining information from intelligence and security organizations specified in the schedule of the Right to Information Act or any information which is furnished by them to the government.
The purpose as to why the CBI was not brought into the limits of the RTI was because the CBI was not considered to be one of those organizations which looked into the strategic interests of India.
Functions of CBI
The Central Bureau of Investigation attains powers from the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act in the year 1946 and is the main investigating agency of the Government of India.
It works under the control of the Central Vigilance Commission in matters related to the Prevention of the Corruption Act, 1988.
Investigations based on breaching of economic and fiscal laws which is related to customs, central excise, foreign exchange regulations, income tax, export as well as import control, etc. But these cases can be filed only upon the request or consultation with the mentioned department.
To arrange the activities or duties of the different state police forces and also anti-corruption agencies. To maintain crime statistics and circulate criminal information.
Why CBI Requires So Much Time in Investigation of Cases
It is done in a professional manner by the use of science and technology and evaluation of evidence by the Forensic Laboratories, which takes time.
It is beyond control as the collection of evidence in a foreign country does depend on many external factors.
Letter of request is issued to the respective country, and the authentication collection is requested by the law enforcement agency of that country which causes the delay as there is an analysis done by the executive officers and the law officers at various multiple levels.
However, within the duration of one month to three months, the investigation of trap cases is usually over.
CBI Training Academy
In Ghaziabad, there is a training academy of the Central Bureau of Investigation. The training courses are organized on various subjects for both their own officers and officers from various other countries as well, which also includes banks, police organizations, vigilance officers of public sector undertakings, etc.